Resource Proposal #1 (more on proposals)

Type (Biz, Gov, or Soc): Society (yes)

Name of Resource and Citation: Forbes Magazine

Andrew, Levine. “Why Tourism Advertising Is More Powerful Than You Think.”Forbes. Forbes Magazine, 19 Mar. 2015. Web. 14 Apr. 2015. <>.

Topic for Paper: Tourism

Tourism is weakening the local culture and autonomy of certain countries. The problem is a lack in regulation of the amount of tourists touring a specific area on a daily basis. Currently, local residents are becoming aggravated because tourists are impacting their daily routines and they believe there is a lack in respect for their culture and city. Additionally, the amount of tourists takes a toll on the local environment. There are various reasons why the amount of tourism has become an issue in the past few years. One of the factors impacting the amount of tourism is an increase in advertising.

Andrew Levine wrote a Forbes Magazine resource featuring a study on the impact of increased advertising. This study supports the idea that advertising has impacted the views of tourism and certain locations due to the halo effect. Psychologist Edward Thorndike founded the “halo effect” terminology through a study on a soldier’s relationship with an officer. Thorndike discovered that “if an officer liked one aspect of the soldier, he tended to have a positive predisposition toward everything about him (Levine).” Levine wanted to perform research on this topic and discovered that surveying consumers allowed him to “see how a state or city’s advertising campaign works in influencing perceptions of a destination’s tourism product and ultimately in motivating travel (Levine).”

Levine studied the “Legendary” campaign for North Dakota and determined that is was a “successful branding statement connecting the state to potential travelers in an emotional and authentic manner (Levine).” The campaign “generated over $100 in visitor spending for every dollar spent on advertising (Levine).” The survey questions and results are as follows:

  • A place to live? Yes, up 41%.
  • A place to start a career? Yes, up 100%.
  • A place to start a business? Yes, up 75%.
  • A place to attend college? Yes, up 87%.
  • A place to purchase a second home? Yes, up 113%
  • A place to retire? Yes, up 75%.

After observing these impacts from the advertising campaign, Levine looked at North Carolina, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, and Wisconsin and performed the same study and found the same results.

This relates to my topic of tourism because this helps support the notion that advertising is a cause of the desire to travel and has impacted the amount of tourists present in a certain location at a given time. I am arguing that the advertising has led to the increase in tourism and it is beginning to become a problem. Although there are economic benefits to tourism, it is beginning to cause issues in certain locations.

Andrew Levine’s Forbes Biography found within this resource discusses how he focuses on writing about “how communities work to attract investment, tourists and talent.” Additionally, he served the President of Development Counsellors International (DCI), which serves over 450 cities, states, regions, and countries through marketing efforts. Thus, he wants to promote the idea that marketing and advertising will lead to more tourism in a certain area because it will generate more business for DCI.

Nice job on the author.  So, it seems in general he will be uninterested in the downside of tourism.  Is that accurate?  Did he seem uncritical of tourism here?

His questions and DCI also seem interested in linking tourism to relocation.  That can be a very different issue?  Like, PA has a brian drain- we raise and educate more young people than who settle here.  Ohio and Wisconsin may face that dynamic too.  So, in terms of local resilience, that may be positive.  

But, anyway, you want to focus on when tourism overwhelms local resources?  When it is too much?  Is that right?  You should find some resources that define the scope and nature of that problem.  Then, with that in hand, this resource might be useful for thinking about how best to advertise to get the desired amount or type of tourism.  There are tourism research centers out there at universities that study tourism and its impact.  May be worth looking for…


Resource Proposal #2 (more on proposals)

Type (Biz, Gov, or Soc): Government

Name of Resource and Citation: National Parks

“The Impacts of Tourism.” National Parks UK. Web. 19 Apr. 2015. <>.

Topic for Paper: Tourism

National Parks UK is a group of 15 members of National Parks.”Each National Park is administered by its own National Park Authority. They are independent bodies funded by central government to: conserve and enhance the natural beauty, wildlife and cultural heritage; and promote opportunities for the understanding and enjoyment of the special qualities of National Parks by the public. Each National Park Authority has a number of unpaid appointed members, selected by the Secretary of State, local councils and parish councils. The role of members is to provide leadership, scrutiny and direction for the National Park Authority.”

The website page I discovered features various case studies on the impacts of tourism. National Parks has found the following positive impacts of tourism:

  • Jobs for local people
  • Income for the local economy
  • Helps preserve rural services like buses, village shops and post offices
  • Increased demand for local food and crafts
  • Tourists mainly come to see the scenery and wildlife, so there is pressure to conserve habitats and wildlife
 DO they provide any measures of the impact of these?

Even though there are positives, there are also negative impacts :

  • Damage to the landscape: litter, erosion, fires, disturbance to livestock, vandalism
  • Traffic congestion and pollution
  • Local goods can become expensive because tourists will pay more
  • Shops stock products for tourists and not everyday goods needed by locals
  • Demand for holiday homes makes housing too expensive for local people
  • Demand for development of more shops and hotels
  • Jobs are mainly seasonal, low paid with long hours

DO they provide any measures of the impact of these?  Are you surprised a government parks agency would discuss negative impacts of what they do?  Are they focused on internal tourism, international, or both?  Does it matter on the negative side, for your concerns, that the UK is a wealthy nation?

In addition to provide insight on the negatives and positives associated with tourism, National Parks UK suggests what we can do to change and begin to work with local communities to make tourism more sustainable. They suggest the following:

  • Show visitors how they can be responsible tourists with events, leaflets, information centres, guided walks and events, signs and websites.
  • Encourage visitors to leave their cars behind and use greener travel, like bikes, buses, boats and trains.
  • Support outdoor activities that don’t damage the countryside or harm wildlife.
  • Encourage visitors to buy local products and food.
  • Run green business schemes to encourage businesses to recycle, reduce energy, conserve water and be sustainable.
  • Ask local communities for their views and ideas by setting up forums, groups and consultations.
  • Reduce erosion caused by visitors, by creating and repairing footpaths.
  • Use planning policies to control the spread of buildings in built-up areas development.
  • Encourage green energy-efficient buildings with planning policies and grant funding.
  • Encourage small-scale renewable energy schemes, like woodchip boilers and solar panels, with planning policies and grant funding.

This relates to my topic because the cast studies demonstrate the negative and positive impacts that tourism has. This supports the claim that tourism impacts local resources and is becoming more of an issue due to the increasing population. Furthermore, it proposes how we can change our behavior in order to solve issues relating to tourism.

The UK has a very rich tradition of public parks and stewardship of them.  Seems like some interesting material you found here.

Resource Proposal #3 (more on proposals)

Type (Biz, Gov, or Soc): Biz

Name of Resource and Citation: Institute of International Education

“Open Doors 2014: International Students in the United States and Study Abroad by American Students Are at All-Time High.” Institute of International Education. Institute of International Education, Inc., 2015. Web. 5 May 2015.<;.

Topic for Paper: Tourism

This source discusses the increase in students studying abroad. The President and CEO of Institute of International Education, Dr. Allan E. Goodman, says, “international experience is one of the most important components of a 21st century resume.” The international education experience provides students, or potential employees, with a cultural experience that is very valuable due to the globalization that has occurred within the business world. Since international education has become so important, The Institute of International Education has generated the Generation Study Abroad campaign, which intends to double the amount of students who study in another country.


Studying abroad has become very popular and successful both for abroad students studying in the United States and US students studying abroad. “The number of international students enrolled in U.S. higher education increased by eight percent to 886,052 students in 2013/14, with 66,408 more students than last year enrolled in colleges and universities across the United States.” Furthermore, “in the 2012/13 academic year, 289,408 American students studied abroad for academic credit, an increase of two percent. Study abroad by American students has more than doubled in the past 15 years, from about 130,000 students in 1998/99.” The Assistant Secretary of State for Educational and Cultural Affairs, Even M. Ryan, says, “international education is crucial to building relationships between people and communities in the United States and around the world. It is through these relationships that together we can solve global challenges like climate change, the spread of pandemic disease, and combatting violent extremism.”

Marketing and mass media have greatly impacted the increase in tourism across the world. In my paper I discuss the evolution of tourism and the factors that have caused issues. Studying abroad is promoted by Universities and employers because it provides students with a cultural exchange. Thus, this was important to address within my paper.



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